ESTONIA IN THE SOVIET PERIOD : PLACES
KURESSAARE, KINGISEPP, ARENSBURG
In World War II the indication Arensburg is used -again- for Kuressaare, the main place on the island Saarema. After the German occupation follows -again- the Soviet occupation. The name Kuressaare then is again used.
The postmark -as on this cover - is bilingual: Russian and Estonian.
This type postmark:
At the bottom is placed the abbreviation ЭСТ ССР (EHST. SSR). The 5-ray Soviet-star is black (negativ): the hammer and sickle within the star are white. The date is placed in a box with left and right sides rounded. Lines, CCCP are fat Left Russian indication and right the Estonian One ray of the star is between CC and CP: in the later type the whole star is more direct under CCCP. Diameter 30 mm and letters 3,0 mm, star 7,00 mm
These type postmarks is in 1940-1941 and again made 1944/1945 and used till 1990.
According a classification in the magazine Lituania: type SO 2
Other types in this classification:
SO 1: diameter 25 mm, letters 3,0 mm, star 7,00 mm
SO 3: diameter 30 mm, letters2,5 mm, star 7,00 mm, the date is placed in a box with left and right sides rounded.
SO 4: diameter 30 mm, letters3,0 mm, no indication of the ЭСТ ССР, the date is placed in a box with left and right sides rounded.
SO 5: diameter 29 mm, letters 2,00 mm, star 5,00 mm and more direct under CCCP, the date is placed in a box with left and right sides rounded. With the date is also now the time (hour) indicated.
SO 6: diameter 29 mm, letters 2,00 mm, star 5,00 mm, the date is placed betwee two parallel lines.
The cover is sent registered to New York in 1951. The cover here is also registered. The letter 'R' (recommandée = registered) is used here in the postmark: for letters sent abroad, as in tsarist times.
For registered letters inland are postmarks with ЗАКАЗНОЕ [ZAKAZNOE] = registered. On the cover you can recognize this indication: written on the first line.
This postmark with the indication 'МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЕ (MEZADUNARODNOE) means 'International '(mail). David Skipton has written an article about this and means that is was used as control-mark for mail to foreigh countries. In his theory is proposed that the damages and nicks of the postmark was used to identify the censor. P.J. Campbell goes further on this way. Olav Petri gives some indications (in HBG, article in Dutch) to support the theory: the handstamp is also used for mail coming into the Sovjet Union and it is not used after 1998. The last is an indication that the handstamp had not a postal meaning and from this time not was needed for controlling the mail.
Literature about 'МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЕ:
- The "MEZhDUNARODNOE" Markings / by David M. Skipton. - In: Rossica 1995 ; no. 125. - p. 6-18
- 'МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЕ Revisited / by P.J. Campbell. - In: Rossica 1997 ; no. 128-129. - p/ 134-154
- Een onschuldig lijkend stempel met een vreemde geschiedenis, alias een filatelistische hulpkreet / Olav Petri. - In: Het Baltische Gebied 2007 ; 50. - p. 22-23
Between 1952 and 1988 Kuressaare had another name: КИННИСЕПП (KINGISEPP) or Kingissepa in honour of the revolutionary Victor Kingisepp.
Map from a Soviet-atlas
On postal stationeries we see also the name Victor Kingissepp. During the Soviet period a theatre in Tallinn is named after Victor Kingissepp. This theatre we find on two postal stationeries.
Here a postal stationery with the V. Kingisepp Drama Theatre in Tallinn, issued 31/X-72. (31-10-1972).
Original print size of this image: 15,858 x 11,413 cm (is something more as the postal item)
This picture and all pictures below on this page, if not mentioned otherwise: scanned about 300 dpi. Then set right and cut out - noted the actual print size-, resized 25 % of this image and saved as jpg.
Postal stationery, issued 14/IV-78.
Original print size of this image: 16,442 x 11,667 cm (is something more as the postal item)
In the postmark on this card, we read КИНГИСЕПП (KINGISEPP) and the Estonian indication Kingissepa.
Original print size of this image: 14,876 x 10,778 cm (is something more as the postal item)
The postmark, resized 50 %
There are two types of the postmark reported in an article of Max Kromm and Harald Vogt:
- KINGISSEPP and serial letter ' b' : 1-10-1974 to 20-6-1989
- KINGISSEPA and serial letter ' a' is used from 19-2-1985 to 20-6-1989 (as on the card here)
The type postmark:
Main distinguishing mark: date between two parallel lines. An new type, first used middle of the sixties together with another type. The greatest difference: a one circle-postmark without datum-box, but the date between two parallel lines. Soviet indication is placed left, Estonian indication on the right side. The serial-letter is placed under the date as small letter of the Russian alphabet. This type postmark is used till 1990.
29 mm in diameter, the letters 2,0 mm, star 5,00 mm
According a classification in the magazine Lituania: Type SO 6.
The other side of this card, postal stationery: views of the island Saarema. Also we see here the castle of Arensburg or -in this time- Kingisepp.
On 12 March (24 March according our Gregorian chronology) Viktor Kingisepp is born in Kaarma/Suire on this island Saarema. So the main city on the island is renamed as Kingisepp. In 1905 he take part in revolutionary movement and in 1906 he became member of the Communist Party. From 1907 he worked for the Party in St. Petersburg and Tallinn (then Revel).
He worked in the years 1913-1914 for the paper ' Kiir'. After the february-revolution of 1917 he returned to St. Petersburg and in 1917 he finished here his study at the university. In June he goes again to Tallinn and is one of the leaders of the Bolsheviks-organisation in Estonia.
As vice-chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee of Estonia, Krai, from 22 october (4 november) 1917, he assisted with the organisation of the Red Guard ans was member of the Executive Committee of the Sovjets of Estonia, Krai.
From march 1918 Kingissepp worked in Moscow for the Supreme Revolutionary Tribunal and the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (All-Russian Cheka); he was member of the special Investigation Commission in the case concerning the revolt of the Left Socialistic Revolutionaries and investigator in the prosecution of the lockart -espionage organization.
Postal stationery, issued 11/II-76 (11-2-1976), with ' Kuressaare linnus' in Kingissepa.
Original print size of this image: 16,441 x 11,666 cm (is something more as the postal item)
In march 1918, during the 4th All-Russian Congress of the Sovjets, he was chosen as member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.
Kingissepp led the Communist Party of Estonia from november 1918. He was chosen as member of the Central Committee and the Politburo of the Central Committee at the First (1920) and the second (1921) Congress of the Communist Party of Estonia. He put the ondergroendse press and published the newspaper 'Kommunist' .
Kingisepp is arrested 3 may 1922, sentenced to death, and early in the morning of May 4 shot.
Postal stationery, issued 18-1-88 (18-1-1988), with ' Kuressaare loss' in Kingissepa.
Original print size of this image: 16,417 x 11,692 cm (is something more as the postal item)
Postal stationery, issued 30-12-1980 and used within Tallinn, with a picture of a house in Kingissepa. On this place now also is established a café-restaurant ' Veski' . I have heard thar you can eat there very good. The mill is built in 1899. in World War II the building is heavily damaged, but in the beginning of the seventies restored and changed in a café-restaurant.
Original print size of this image: 16,137 x 11,692 cm (is something more as the postal item)
A cover with the machine-postmark of Kingissepa.
Original print size of this image: 16,239 x 11,642 cm (is something more as the postal item)
The machine-postmarks of the Soviet period are to divide in types like the handstamps, but the top is rotated 90 degrees. This postmark with three wave-lines is a table-cancelationmachine. This kind of machines is in order about the beginning of 1976.
Main distinguishing mark: date between two parallel lines (see above). According a classification in the magazine Lituania: Type SO 6, but here we have a subtype with diameter 25 mm.
With the memorial of 10 year Soviet Republic Estonia, 1950, a stamp with his portrait is issued (Mi. 1506).
Mi. 1506, resized 50 %.
He was so important for the Communists that also a place in the regio Leningrad is named Kingissepp. This place has this name up to now. On a postage stamp of the Soviet-Union, issued 24-3-1963, is memorated the 75th birthday of Kingissepp (mi. 2733).
Mi. 2733, resized 50 %.
Mi. 5810, resized 50 %.
Also his 100th birthday is commemorated on a Soviet postage stamp (Mi. 5810).
Estonia became -official- independent again on 20 August 1991. Before that date, in 1988, the former name Kuressaare is restored. This name we see then also in the Soviet-postmarks, and later of course in the postmarks of independent Estonia.
On this cover we see the soviet machine-postmark with Kuressaare.
In the transition period we see also Russian franking with the new Estonian postmark of Kuressaare.
Original print size of this image: 16,417 x 11,667 cm (is something more as the postal item)
The castle of Kuressaare we see also on a modern postage stamp of Estonia (Mi. 237).